Jordan Henderson, Harry Kane and Bukayo Saka all scored in a commanding performance from Gareth Southgate's team, who are chasing their first major trophy since winning the 1966 World Cup.
England captain Harry Kane scored his first goal of this year’s World Cup.
The victory extended England's all-time unbeaten run against African teams to 21 games, including eight in World Cups.
Morocco, who face Spain on Tuesday, are now the only African team left in the tournament.
The absence of the suspended Idrissa Gueye and injured Cheikhou Kouyate left Senegal’s midfield too underpowered to pose problems for England.
With Sadio Mane missing the tournament through injury the Africans also lacked a cutting edge to trouble an England defense that kept a third successive World Cup clean sheet for the first time in 20 years.
England, which reached the semifinals at the last World Cup in Russia, will face defending champion France at Al Bayt Stadium on Saturday December 10.
"We'll enjoy this one but then our focus turns to that, it's going to be a really tough game," said Kane.
"They are reigning champions but it's a good battle."
France moved on the quarterfinals after beating Poland 3-1 earlier on Sunday.