The White House was reported on Wednesday to have told the app that it will be banned in the United States if it continues to be owned by the Beijing-based tech firm.
A TikTok spokesperson told AFP that "calls for a ban or divestment are unnecessary", insisting that the best path forward to addressing concerns about national security is transparent, US-based protection of US user data and systems."
Beijing hit back against the ultimatum on Thursday, urging Washington to "stop unreasonably suppressing" TikTok.
"The US has so far failed to produce evidence that TikTok threatens US national security," Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin told a regular briefing.
"Data security issues should not be used as a tool for some countries to overstretch the concept of national security, abuse state power and unjustifiably suppress other countries' enterprises," Wang added.
The White House last week welcomed a bill introduced in the US Senate that would allow President Joe Biden to ban TikTok.
The bipartisan bill "would empower the United States government to prevent certain foreign governments from exploiting technology services... in a way that poses risks to Americans' sensitive data and our national security," Biden's national security advisor, Jake Sullivan, said in a statement.
The bill's introduction and quick White House backing accelerated the political momentum against TikTok, which is also the target of a separate piece of legislation in the US House of Representatives.
Appearing tough on China is one of the rare issues with potential for bipartisan support in both the Republican-run House and the Senate, where Biden's Democratic Party holds the majority.
- TikTok use rocketing -
TikTok claims it has more than a billion users worldwide including over 100 million in the United States, where it has become a cultural force, especially among young people.
Time spent by users on TikTok has surpassed that spent on YouTube, Facebook, Instagram or Twitter and it is closing in on streaming titan Netflix, according to market tracker Insider Intelligence.
Activists argue a ban would be an attack on free speech, and stifle the export of American culture and values to TikTok users around the world.
US government workers in January were banned from installing TikTok on their government-issued devices.
Civil servants in the European Union and Canada are also barred from downloading the app on their work devices.
And the UK looks set to follow suit, with British media reporting on Thursday that the app will be banned from UK government phones.
According to the Wall Street Journal, the US government's ultimatum to TikTok came from an interagency board charged with assessing risks foreign investments pose to national security.
TikTok has consistently denied sharing data with Chinese officials, and says it has been working with US authorities for more than two years to address national security concerns.