Thursday's protests, which drew the largest crowds in northern Khartoum, marks one year since November 17, 2021. That day saw 15 people killed, the deadliest single-day crackdown on anti-coup demonstrations.
"The martyr's blood did not go in vain," demonstrators chanted, while others called for the military to "go back to the barracks."
Some protestors criticised a possible deal between the military and Sudan's main civilian bloc, the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC), which was ousted in the coup.
Ongoing talks between the FFC and the military, which have lasted for weeks, are the latest bid to break the political stalemate.
On Wednesday, the FFC said it had approved a two-phase political process based on the Bar Association's initiative.
The initial component would cover a constitutional framework establishing civilian government, while the second comprises a final deal tackling issues including transitional justice and reforms to the military.
Unrest has gripped Sudan since October 2021, when army chief Abdel Fattah al-Burhan led a military takeover that derailed the country's transition to civilian rule, established following the 2019 ouster of dictator Omar al-Bashir.
On Sunday, Burhan said the military was presented with a "document" on the political process.
"We noted down observations to preserve the army's dignity, unity and independence," said Burhan, during a visit to a military base west of Khartoum.
He also warned political factions against "interference" in the armed forces' activities, saying "we consider anyone who tries to interfere in the army an enemy."