"With a confirmed clean bill of health, I am now able to get back to physical meetings, starting with cabinet this afternoon," the Uganda president said on Twitter.
On Sunday, he declared on Twitter that he had tested negative after an 11-day "battle", saying: "On the war with corona (COVID-19), it is now confirmed that I am a veteran graduate of the war with that enemy."
Monday's post was accompanied by video images of Museveni greeting staff at State House in the city of Entebbe where he chaired the cabinet meeting.
The 78-year-old Museveni, who has ruled the East African nation with an iron fist for decades, had announced on June 8 that he had tested positive for COVID-19, triggering speculation about his state of health.
He said he had "some mild flu-like symptoms" but had decided to self-isolate and delegate his duties to Prime Minister Robinah Nabbanja.
Museveni last week pulled out of a high-level trip by African delegates to Ukraine and Russia to try to broker an end to the conflict, but he did address Uganda's parliament remotely during the presentation of the country's budget.
Once hailed as a reformist, he seized control in 1986, when he helped end years of tyranny under Idi Amin and Milton Obote.
But the former rebel leader has since cracked down on dissent and changed the constitution to allow himself to contest elections again and again.
According to the latest World Health Organization figures, Uganda has registered 170,775 COVID-19 cases and 3,632 deaths since the start of the pandemic.