Authorities say the migrants come from Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone, Inforpress said on Sunday.
Six have been hospitalized with dehydration, it said.
According to the newspaper Expresso das Ilhas, the canoe had left The Gambia 25 days before but ran out of fuel.
Cape Verde is a former Portuguese archipelago located around 600 kilometers off the coast of West Africa.
It has previously picked up migrants in distress trying to make the crossing to the Spanish islands of Canaries -- a gateway to the European Union -- but high numbers are rare.