The sanctions target Weah's Chief of Staff Nathaniel McGill, Liberia's Chief Prosecutor Sayma Syrenius Cephus and Bill Twehway, the managing director of the National Port Authority.
McGill, Cephus and Twehway are being designated as foreign government officials who allegedly engaged in corruption including the misappropriation of state assets, taking private assets for personal gain, or bribery, according to the statement.
"Through their corruption these officials have undermined democracy in Liberia for their own personal benefit," Brian Nelson, Treasury's under secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence, said in a statement.
The designations "demonstrate that the United States remains committed to holding corrupt actors accountable and to the continued support of the Liberian people," he said.
Under the sanctions, all property and interests in property of the three officials that are in the United States must be blocked and reported to Treasury, while people who engage in transactions with the officials may be subject to sanctions themselves, the statement said.
Reuters did not indicate any public responses to the sanctions by the three involved.