Education Minister Janet Museveni said there had been cases in five schools in the capital Kampala, as well as the neighboring Wakiso district and Mubende, the epicenter of the outbreak.
She said the cabinet had agreed to close pre-primary, primary and secondary schools from November 25, two weeks before the scheduled end of term.
"Closing schools earlier will reduce areas of concentration where children are in daily close contact with fellow children, teachers and other staff who could potentially spread the virus," said the minister, who is also the wife of veteran President Yoweri Museveni.
Students in Uganda are currently in their third and final term for the calendar year, at the end of which they sit promotional exams.
On Saturday, Uganda extended a three-week lockdown on Mubende and neighboring Kassanda, the two central districts at the heart of the outbreak which has claimed more than 50 lives.
The measures include a dusk-to-dawn curfew, a ban on personal travel and the closure of markets, bars and churches.
Since the outbreak was declared in Mubende on September 20, the disease has spread across the East African nation, including to the capital Kampala.
But the president has said nationwide curbs were not needed.
However, the World Health Organization (WHO) last week said Uganda had registered over 150 confirmed and probable cases, including 64 fatalities.
Uganda's last recorded fatality from a previous Ebola outbreak was in 2019.
The strain now circulating is known as the Sudan Ebola virus, for which there is currently no vaccine, although there are several candidate vaccines heading towards clinical trials.
This report was compiled with date from Reuters and Agence France-Presse